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 Nouns الأسماء

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مُساهمةموضوع: Nouns الأسماء   الأربعاء أكتوبر 01, 2008 3:41 pm

اهلا بكم فى اول درس من دروس المنتدى فى
اللغة الانجليزية
الشرح باللغة الانجليزية و العربية
و نبدأ أول درس و هو

study NOUNS study
الأسماء




Definition: A noun is a word used to refer to people, animals, objects, substances, states, events and feelings.
التعريف: الأسم هو كلمة تستخدم للدلالة على اشخاص, حيوانات,الأجسام ، والمواد ، والدول ، والأحداث والمشاعر


For example:


Table

Pencil

The dog
A white house
Nouns also denote abstract and intangible concepts.(للدلالة على مفاهيم مجردة وغير ملموسة)
For example:


birth
happiness
evolution
technology, etc.
Noun Plurals
الأسماء الجمع

We are going to explain some rules that will help you to form the plural forms of the nouns. The general rule is to add "-s" to the noun in singular.
For example:


Book - Books
House - Houses
Chair - Chairs
When the singular noun ends in: -sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o we form their plural form by adding "-es".
(عندما يكون الأسم مفرد و ينتهى بـ sh, -ch, -s, -ss, -x, -o نحقق الجمع باضافة "-es" )


For example:


sandwich - sandwiches
brush - brushes
bus - buses
box - boxes
potato - potatoes
When the singular noun ends in "y", we change the "y" for "i" and then add "-es" to form the plural form. But do not change the "y" for "ies" to form the plural when the singular noun ends in "y" preceded by a vowel.
(عندما يكون الأسم ينتهى بـ "y" تحوَل ال"y" الى "i" و نضيف "-es" لنحقق صيغة الجمع. و فى حالة وجود حروف العلة (A - E - I - O - U) قبل الـ "Y" لا تتحول الـ "Y" الى "IES"


For example:


nappy - nappies
day - days
toy - toys
However, there are many Irregular Nouns which do not form the plural in this way:
(هناك العديد من الأسماء الشواذ التى لا ينطبق عليها الصيغ الجمع السابقة)


For example:


Woman - Women
Child - Children
Sheep - Sheep
Nouns may take an " 's " ("apostrophe s") . If the noun already has an -s ending to mark the plural, then the genitive marker appears only as an apostrophe after the plural form.
(الأسماء يمكن أن تأخد " 's " . اذا كان الأسم ينتهى بـ "-s"علامة على الجمع فتظهر علامة الجر كالفصلة بعد حرف الجمع


For example:


my girlfriend's brother
John's house
The Browns' house
The boys' pens
The genitive marker should not be confused with the " 's " form of contracted verbs, as in John's a good student = John is a good student.
)(يجب عدم الخلط بين علامة الجر و بين "s" الخاصة بالفعل مثل John's a good student = John is a good student. )



Noun Gender
جنس الأسم

Many common nouns, like "engineer" or "teacher", can refer to men or women. Many English nouns would change form depending on their gender. For example: A man was called an "author" while a woman was called an "authoress".
For example:


David Garrick was a very prominent eighteenth-century actor.
Sarah Siddons was at the height of her career as an actress in the 1780s.
The manager was trying to write an advertisment, but he couldn't decide whether he was advertising for a "waiter" or a "waitress"
Types of Nouns
انواع الأسماء


Proper nouns
are the names of specific things, people, or places, such as Jhon, France. They usually begin with a capital letter.
الأسم السلمية: هي أسماء محددة للأمور ، الناس ، أو أماكن و غالبا تبدأ بـ capital letter




Abstract nouns
refer to ideas or qualities such as liberty and truth.
الأسماء الخالصة: هى أشارة إلى أفكار أو الصفات مثل الحرية والحقيقة.




Common nouns
are general names such as person, mansion, and book. They can be either concrete or abstract.
الأسماء المشتركة: هى اسماء عامة مثل أفراد, قصر و كتاب. و الأسماء المشتركة نوعين إما مجردة أو ملموسة




Concrete nouns
refer to things which you can sense such as clock and telephone.
الأسماء الملموسة : هى أشارة الأشياء الملموسة مثل الساعة و التليفون.




Countable nouns
refer to things which can be counted (can be singular or plural)
الأسماء القابلة للعدَ : هى الأشاياء التى يمكن عدَها و يمكن ان تكون مفرد او جمع




Uncountable nouns
refer to some groups of uncountable nouns, substances, feelings and types of activity (can only be singular)
الأسماء الغير قابلة للعدَ: هى أشاؤة الى المجموعات للأسماء الغير قابلة للعدَ المواد ، مشاعر وأنواع النشاط (لا يمكن إلا أن يكون بصيغة المفرد(
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الأربعاء أكتوبر 01, 2008 3:48 pm


و الآن اليكم الشرح التفصيلى لكل نوع على حدى:



PROPER NOUNالأسم السليم




Definition: Proper nouns ( also called proper names) are the words which name specific people, organisations, places, titles, cities, countries, calendar times, etc. They are always written with a capital letter.
For example:


J
anet; Simon; John Wesley; London; The President; Tuesday; Christmas; Thanksgiving; Atlantic Ocean; Spain.
Examples:



Peter
lives in Spain.
Many people dread Monday mornings.
Beltane
is celebrated on the first of May.
Abraham
appears in the Talmud and in the Koran
ABSTRACT NOUN الأسماء المجردة




Definition: An abstract noun refers to states, events, concepts, feelings, qualities, etc., that have no physical existence.

Examples:



Friendship; peace; romance; humor are all abstract nouns that have no physical existence.


COMMON NOUN الأسم المشترك




Definition: A common noun is a word that names people, places, things, or ideas. They are not the names of a single person, place or thing. A common noun begins with a lowercase letter unless it is at the beginning of a sentence.

Examples:


People:
man, woman, girl, baby, son, dughther, policeman, teacher
Animals:
cat, dog, fish, ant, snake
Things:
bear, book, boat, table, chair, phone
Places:
bank, school, city, building, shop
Ideas:
love, hate, idea, pride
Example sentences:



apple:
I love a good red apple after dinner.
dog, yard:
The black dog is in my yard.
book, table:
The red book is on the table.
call:
Give me a call when you arrive.

CONCRETE NOUN الأسماء الملموسة




Definition: Concrete nouns refers to objects and substances, including people and animals, physical items that we can perceive through our senses, that means concrete nouns can be touched, felt, held, something visible, smelt, taste, or be heard.

Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or plural nouns. Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.

Example:



This is my house.

* In this example the noun "house" names a building where I live. That building is an individual object and can be seen and touched by everyone.

Other examples:



Common Concrete Nouns:

snake, cat, table, girl, water
Countable Concrete Nouns (Singular):

table, computer, book, door
Countable Concrete Nouns (Plural):

tables, computers, books, doors
Uncountable Concrete Nouns:

sugar, rice, water, air, oil, salt, cheese
Proper Nouns:

Mrs. Jones, Tom Cruse, Max Ryan
* "Time" is a concept that has no physical existence; it is not a Concrete Noun



COUNTABLE NOUN الأسماء القابلة للعد




Definition: A Count Noun is a noun which can be modified by a numeral and occur in both singular and plural form, as well as co-occurring with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, most, etc. Countable nouns are individual objects, people, places, etc. which can be counted. Count nouns can be made plural, usually by adding -s or -es at the end.
For example:


She saw seven cows in the garden
There is a cow in the garden.
Every cow is an animal.
Examples:





Usually count nouns


Persons


Places


Things


child/ren
teacher/s
student/s
plumber/s
lawyer/s
psychologist/s
historian/s
economist/s
biologist/s
reporter/s
dean/s
coordinator/s
researcher/s

store/s
mall/s
park/s
bar/s
office/s
school/s
home/s
station/s
church/es
deli/s
cafeteria/s
shop/s
airport/s

shoe/s
car/s
door/s
house/s
key/s
letter/s
chair/s
box/es
cow/s
poster/s
glass/es
ball/s

Some nouns, like the word time, beauty, fire, death, gossip can be used as either a count noun, or a non-count noun.
For example:


How much time did it take for you to drive to school?.
Here, time is a non-count noun, because it refers to a category that contains smaller items (think of it as a "group" of minutes).

How many times did you take the test before you passed?.
Here, time is a count noun, because you can count exactly how many separate times you took the test.

They had a death in the family.
Death is a tragic thing.
Supermarkets have aisles for different foods.
The animals at the zoo wanted food.
The "much" and "many" Rule

Many is used with count nouns.
For example:


How many papers do you have to write?
There were too many books required for that class.
Much is used with non-count nouns.
For example:


How much homework did you have last night?
I had to read so much literature for my English class.
You can use "some" and "any" with countable nouns.


For example:


Some dogs can be dangerous.
I don't use any computers at work.
You only use "many" and "few" with plural countable nouns.


For example:


Many elephants have been hunted.
There are few elephants in England.
You can use "a lot of" and "no" with plural countable nouns.


For example:


No computers were bought last week.
A lot of computers were reported broken the week before.

UNCOUNTABLE NOUNالأسماء الغير قابلة للعد




Definition: An uncountable noun (or non-count noun) is a type of common noun that cannot be modified by a number without specifying a unit of measurement. In general, non-count nouns are considered to refer to indivisible wholes (which are not individual objects and can not be counted). For this reason, they are sometimes called MASS nouns. Uncountable nouns are used to describe a quality, action, thing or substance that can be poured or measured. Non-Count nouns also refer to a whole category made up of different varieties or a whole group of things that is made up of many individual parts. Uncountable nouns are always singular. Use the singular form of the verb with uncountable nouns.
For example:


There is some water in that pitcher.
That is the equipment we use for the project.
Examples:





Usually non-count nouns


Things


Qualities


Actions


Fields of Study


water
stuff
money
advice
proof
equipment
dust
homework
fun
information
ink
luck

dependability
honesty
loyalty
sincerity
integrity

walking/to walk
typing/to type
jumping/to jump
thinking/to think
swimming/to swim

psychology
history
social work
economics
biology
English
anatomy
philosophy
religion
theology


Some nouns, like the word time, beauty, fire, death, gossip can be used as either a count noun, or a non-count noun.
For example:


How much time did it take for you to drive to school?.
Here, time is a non-count noun, because it refers to a category that contains smaller items (think of it as a "group" of minutes).
How many times did you take the test before you passed?.
Here, time is a count noun, because you can count exactly how many separate times you took the test.
They had a death in the family.
Death is a tragic thing.
Supermarkets have aisles for different foods.
The animals at the zoo wanted food.
The "much" and "many" Rule

Many is used with count nouns.
For example:


How many papers do you have to write?
There were too many books required for that class.
Much is used with non-count nouns.
For example:


How much homework did you have last night?
I had to read so much literature for my English class.
You can use "some" and "any" with uncountable nouns.


For example:


I usually drink some wine with my meal.
I don't usually drink any water with my wine.
You only use "much" and "little" with uncountable nouns.


For example:


I don't usually drink much coffee.
Little wine is undrinkable though.
You can use "a lot of" and "no" with uncountable nouns.


For example:


A lot of wine is drunk in France.
No wine is drunk in Iran.



و بكدا نكون انتهينا من درس الأسماء و ان شاء الله هيكون فى موضوع تدريبات على الدرس affraid
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تاريخ التسجيل: 25/09/2008

مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الأربعاء أكتوبر 01, 2008 10:40 pm

والله جامدياسارة تسلمي مشرفتنا
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الخميس أكتوبر 02, 2008 6:49 am

كم انت رائعة يا سارة
انا بحييكى من كل قلبى
د/هانى lol!
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الخميس أكتوبر 02, 2008 1:56 pm

شكرا ليكم و لتشجعكم ليا Smile
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الخميس أكتوبر 09, 2008 9:37 pm

شكرا على المجهودج الرائع
ولكن هل توجد كورسات ناطقه
دروس صوتيه
اتمنى ذلك
شكرا مره اخرى
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو http://vip2010.ahlamontada.com
sarah
مشرفة قسم الكورسات
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 2:15 pm

شكرا على ردك
و ان شاء الله هحاول اجيب دروس صوتية
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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enas
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Nouns الأسماء   الثلاثاء نوفمبر 11, 2008 3:33 pm

السلام عليكم
ما شاء الله
رائع سارة تقديمك للمادة العلمية
جزاكى الله كل خير
مع جزيل الشكر والتقدير
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 

Nouns الأسماء

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 مواضيع مماثلة

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»  قوانين تغيير الأسماء
» Nouns الأسماء
» Countable and Uncountable Nouns - المعدود وغير المعدود
» Noun/Adjective Suffixes:

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