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 The Pronouns

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مُساهمةموضوع: The Pronouns   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:32 am

study PRONOUNSالضمائر study


Definition: A pronoun usually refers to something already mentioned in a sentence or piece of text. A pronoun is a word that substitutes a noun or noun phrase used to prevent repetition of the noun to which they refer.
التعريف: الضمير عادة ما يشير الى شئ ما قد تم الاشارة اليه من قبل فى الجملة او القطعة. و هو يكتب لتجنب التكرار

Rules for Pronouns
A pronoun must agree with the noun it refer. Therefore, if the noun is singular, therefore the pronoun must be singular; if the noun is plural, use a plural pronoun; if the noun is feminine, use a feminine pronoun, and so on.
قوانين للضمائر:
يجب للضمير ان يتطابق مع الاسم الذى يشير اليه من حيث النوع و ان كان مفرد او جمع

For example:


The train was late, it had been delayed.
The trains were late, they had been delayed.
Types of pronouns
انواع الضمائر
English Pronouns are divided into sub-categories. These are Demonstrative, Personal, Reflexive, Possessive, Interrogative, Negative, Reciprocal, Relative and Quantifier



TypeAboutExample
Personal Pronoun Takes the place of a specific or named person or thing.
يحل محل اسم شخص او شئ
I, you, he, she, etc..
Reflexive Pronoun Adds information by pointing back to a noun or another pronoun.
يضيف معلومات بالاشارة على الاسم او ضمير اخر
myself, yourself, etc..
Demonstrative Pronoun Points out a specific person, place, or thing.
يشير الى اسم او مكان او شئ محدد بعينه
this, that, these, those
Relative pronoun relates a subordinate clause to the rest of the sentence
يربط جواب الشرط بباقى الجملة
who, whose, which, that, etc..
Interrogative Pronoun Is used to ask a question.
يستخدم لتكوين صيغة سؤال
who, what, where, etc..
Possessive Pronoun Used to substitute a noun and to show possession or ownership.
لاظهار الملكية
mine, yours, his, etc..
Negative Pronounnothing, no, nobody, etc..
Reciprocal pronoun Express an interchangeable or mutual action or relationship.
للتعبير عن العلاقات المتبادلة
each other, one another
Quantifiersome, any, something, much, etc.
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Pronouns   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:37 am

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN [/size]




Definition: pronouns that point to specific things. "This, that, these, those, none and neither" , to indicate whether they are close or far, in space or time, from the speaker in the moment of speaking.
التعريف:للاشارة الى اشياء محددة."This, that, these, those, none and neither"
هيا ضمائر تحدد مدى البعد و القرب من حيث الوقت و المسافة من المتحدث لحظة حديثه.



"This" (singular) and "These" (plural) refer to an object or person NEAR the speaker.
"That" (singular) and "Those" (plural) refer to an object or person further AWAY.
For example:


This is unbelievable.
* In this example, "this" can refer to an object or situation close in space or in time to the speaker.
That is unbelievable.
* In this example, "that" can refer to an object or situation farther in space or in time to the speaker.
These are unbelievable.
* In this example, "these" can refer to some objects close in space or in time to the speaker.
Those are unbelievable.
* In this example, "those" can refer to some objects farther in space or in time to the speaker. Position



Before the noun.
Before the word 'one'.
Before an adjective + noun.
Alone when the noun is 'understood'
اماكن وضع الضمائر:
قبل الاسم
قبل كلمة
'one'
قبل النعت + الاسم
بمفرده اذا كان الاسم المشار عنه مفهوم من صيغة الكلام


Examples


Who owns that house? (distant - physical )
Is this John's house? (near - physical )
That's nothing to do with me.. (distant - psychological )
This is a nice surprise! (near - psychological )

INTERROGRATIVE PRONOUN



Definition: used in order to ask a question. They do not distinguish between singular and plural, so they only have one form. they produce information questions that require more than a "yes" or "no" answer.
التعريف:
تستخدم لصيغة الاسئلة
لا تفرق بين المفرد و الجمع لذا فهم لهم صيغة محددة تصلح للمذكر و المؤنث
تكون لاسئلة استفسارية تطلب اجابة مفصلة غير "
yes" or "no"
For example: What is her phone number? What do you want?
Interrogative pronouns are: What, Which, Who, Whose, Whom. In addition, these pronouns may take the suffixes -ever and -soever. Forms: يمكن لهذه الضمائر ان تلعب دور الفاعل, المفعول به و الملكية
As we can see in the next table, these pronouns could act as a subject, object or possessive in a sentence.





Subject ObjectPossessive
whowhomwhose
which
that


WHAT can be used to ask about objects or people.


For example:


What time is it?
What is your name?
What do you want? WHICH can be used to ask about objects or people.



For example:


Which chair are you talking about?
Which jumper do you like?
Which is your mother? WHO can be used to ask about people


For example:


Who are you?
Which is your mother?
Who has been sitting in my chair? WHOSE can be used to ask about a possession relation.(علاقة ملكية)



For example:


Whose is this book?
Whose car did you drive here? WHOM can be used to ask about people.It is less usual and more formal than "who"اكثر رسمية و غير معتاد عليها مثل



For example:


Whom did you phone?
For whom will you vote? NOTE: "who," "whom," or "which" can also be used as a relative pronoun.

For example:


The man whom she chose will do a wonderful job. Examples


Who is in charge?
Which wants to see the dentist first?
Who wrote the novel Rockbound?
Whom do you think we should invite?
What did she say?

PERSONAL PRONOUN


Definition: Personal pronouns refer to the person who is doing the action or to whom the action affects. In that way we distinguish two types of personal pronouns: Personal "Subject Pronouns" and Personal "Object Pronouns".
التعريف: الضمير الشخصى يعود على الشخص الذى يقوم بالفعل او الشخص الذى يؤثر عليه الفعل, لذلك نجد نوعين من الضمائر الشخصية: (1-صيغة الفاعل. 2- صيغة المفعول به)






Personal Pronouns
Subject formObject form
IMe
YouYou
Hehim
sheher
itit
weus
youyou
theythem


Personal Subject Pronouns
A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence.
الضمير الشخصى بصيغة الفاعل يجعل الضمير يلعب دور الفاعل فى الجملة


For example:


John is listening to music.
=> He listens to music every day.
* In this case, "he" substitutes "John" which is the subject of the sentence.
After many years, they returned to their homeland. Personal Object Pronouns
An objective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, compound verb, preposition, or infinitive phrase.
الضمير الشخصى بصيغة المفعول به يجعل الضمير يلعب دور مفعول به للفعل, فعل مركب, ظرف, او جملة فى المصدر


For example:


Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest café in the market.
* Here the objective personal pronoun "us" is the direct object of the compound verb "will meet."
Christopher was surprised to see her at the races.
* Here the objective personal pronoun "her" is the object of the infinitive phrase "to see."

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN



Definition: We use the Possessive Pronouns when we want to substitute a group of words that are indicating a possession relation.
التعريف: يستخدم عندما نريد ان نحل محل مجموعة من الكلمات التى تشير الى علاقة حيازة (امتلاك)






Subject
Possessive
IMine
YouYours
HeHis
SheHers
ItIts
WeOurs
YouYours
TheyTheirs



For example:


This is my book.
* In this example, we can substitute "my book" for the possessive pronoun "mine". => This is mine.
This is your disk and that's mine.
* Mine substitutes the word disk and shows that it belongs to me.
A possessive pronoun indicates it is acting as a subject of the sentence.
بيلعب دور فاعل الجملة


For example:


The smallest gift is mine.
This is yours.
* Here the possessive pronouns acts as a subject complement. His is on the kitchen counter.
Theirs will be delivered tomorrow.
Ours is the green one on the corner.
* Here the possessive pronoun acts as the subject of the sentence.
For example:


You can borrow my book as long as you remember that it's not yours.
=> The possessive "my" depends on the noun "book."
=> The possessive "yours" is a pronoun which stands in the place of "your book".
When you drive to Manitoba, will you take your car or theirs?
=> The possessive "your" depends on the noun "car."
=> The possessive pronoun, "theirs," stands in the place of the noun phrase, "their car."

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Pronouns   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:39 am

RELATIVE PRONOUN[/size]
Definition:
to refer to a noun mentioned before and of which we are adding more information. They are used to join two or more sentences and forming in that way what we call "relative sentences".
التعريف: للاشارة الى اسم قد تم الاشارة له من قبل بالاضافة الى اضافة معلومات عنه اخرى. يستخدم للربط بين جملتين او اكثر و بذلك يتم تكوين هذا النوع من الضمائر







Relative pronouns
Who, Whom, That, Which
whoever, whomever, whichever



For example:
People who speak two languages are called bilingual.
* In this example, the relative "who" introduces the relative sentence "speak two languages" that describes or gives more information about the noun "people".
Relative pronouns: Subject or Object
For example:


The chef who won the competition studied in Paris.
* Here, "who" relates back to (or is relative to) the noun "Chef". "Who" also acts as the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "won".
=> The dependent clause: who won the competition.
=> The independent clause: The chef studied in Paris.
The shirt that Carl bought has a stain on the pocket.
* Here, "that" relates back to (or is relative to) the noun "shirt". "That" is also the object of the verb "bought".
=> The dependent clause is: that Carl bought.
=> The independent clause: The shirt has a stain on the pocket.
Referring to people: Who, Whom, Whoever, Whomever
These pronouns take a different case depending on whether the relative pronoun is a subject or an object in the dependent clause.
هذه الضمائر تأخد حاللات مختلفة معتمدة على كونها فاعل ام مفعول به


Subjective case
Use the subjective case when these relative pronouns are the subject (initiating the action) of the dependent clause: Who, Whoever
نستخدم حالة الفاعل عندما تكون الضمائر فاعل الفعل

For example:


Negotiations were not going smoothly between the two leaders, who made no bones about not liking each other.
* "Who" relates back to the noun "leaders" and is the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "made".
Most workers, whoever was not employed by the auto manufacturer, toiled at one of the millions of little minnow companies.
* "Whoever" relates back to the noun "workers" and is the subject of the dependent clause and the verb "was employed".
Objective case
Use the objective case when these relative pronouns are the object (receiving the action) of the dependent clause: Whom, Whomever
نستخدم حالة المفعول به عندما تكون الضمائر مفعول به مستقبل للفعل

For example:


This is the approach taken by journalists, whom some consider to be objective.
* "Whom" relates back to the noun "journalists" and is the object of the verb "consider". The subject of the dependent clause is "some".
The three representatives, whomever the committee chooses, should be at the meeting tomorrow.
* "Whomever" relates back to the noun representatives and is the object of the verb "chooses". The subject of the dependent clause is "Committee".
Referring to a place, thing or idea: Which, That

When information is critical to the understanding of the main clause, use That as the appropriate relative pronoun and do not set the information off by commas.
عندما تكون المعلومة حساسة نستخدم that و لا نسبقها بفصلة
For example:


Russian generals have delivered a message that is difficult to ignore.
* "That" relates back to the noun "message" and is necessary for the reader to know what "message" the sentence is about.
There is another factor that obviously boosts the reputation of both of these men.
* "That" relates back to the noun "factor" and is necessary for the reader to know what "factor" the sentence is about.
When information is not critical to the understanding of the main clause, use "Which" as the appropriate relative pronoun and set the information off by commas.
عندما تكون المعلومة غير حساسة نستخدم which و نسبقها بفصلة
For example:


The toughest intramural fight of all for Clinton was the North American Free Trade Agreement, which he undertook a full year before the 1994 election.
* "Which" relates back to the noun "agreement" and the information following it is not necessary for the reader to know what "agreement" the sentence is about.
Clinton refused to head toward the center on affirmative action and abortion, which are the two most sacred issues to the traditional liberal wing of the party.
* "Wich" relates back to the noun "affirmative action and abortion" and the information following it is not necessary for the reader to know what "affirmative action and abortion" the sentence is about.
When referring to more than one place, thing or idea use these relative pronouns: Whatever, Whichever
للاشارة الى اكثر من مكان , شئ, او فكرة نستخدم Whatever, Whichever
For example:


The three approaches, whichever works is fine, produce a more ambiguous picture of a man.
* "Whichever" relates to the noun "approaches" and the information contained within the commas is additional, not critical information.
Any excessive profits, whatever exceeded accepted limits, would attract the notice of representatives.
* "Whatever" relates to the noun "profits" and the information contained within the commas is additional, not critical information.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUN


Definition: to indicate that the person who realizes the action of the verb is the same person who receives the action.
للاشارة الى ان الشخص ذاته الذى يدرك فعل الفعل هو نفس الشخص الذى يتلقى الفعل







Subject
Reflexive
SingularI
You
He
She
It
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
PluralWe
You
They
ourselves
yourselves
themselves



For example:


I
cut my hair myself.
* In this example "I" does the action of cutting the hair and at the same time "I" gets the action of the hair being cut.
We defended ourselves brilliantly.
* In this example the reflexive pronoun "ourselves" refers back to the subject of the sentence.
John talks to himself when he is nervous.
* In this example "Himself" refers to John.
Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction between the subject and an object.
داما تعمل دور المفعول به و ليس الفاعل و تطلب التفاعل بين الفاعل و المفعول به
For example:


Because she was not hungry when the cake was served, Ellen saved herself a piece.
* In the independent clause, "Ellen" is the subject and "herself" is a reflexive pronoun acting as the indirect object. This sentence is grammatically correct.
John and myself are going to the movie.
* In this sentence, "John" and "myself" are the subjects. Reflexive pronouns cannot be subjects. This sentence is grammatically incorrect.
Care must be taken to identify whether the noun is singular or plural and choose the pronoun accordingly.
يجب الاعتناء بسواء كان الاسم مفرد ام جمع و على اساسه نختار الضمير
For example:


Nor is she shy about giving herself credit for it.
We gave ourselves a second chance to complete the course.
Did they lock themselves out of the house again?
Give yourselves a pat on the back for a job well done.
Note: The reflexive pronoun can also be used to give more emphasis to the subject or object
يمكن له ايضا ان يعطى تركيز اكبر للفاعل و المفعول به
For example:
I did it myself.
* I want to emphasise the fact that I did it.
Examples:


He
washed himself.
She looked at herself in the mirror.
Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day.
After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building.
Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.
[size=21]
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: The Pronouns   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:41 am

RECIPROCAL PRONOUN[/size]

Definition: We use it indicate that two people can carry out an action and get the consequences of that action at the same time. There are two reciprocal pronouns:
التعريف: يؤكد هذا النوع من الضمائر على ان فردين يقومون بعمل و يحصلون على نتيجة العمل فى نفس الوقت


Reciprocal pronouns
each other
one another
They enable you to simplify sentences where the same general idea is expressed two or more times.
هو يساعد على تبسيط الجملة بحيث ان يتجنب تكرار الفكرة اكثر من مرة

For example:
On their wedding day John gave Mary a gold ring and Mary gave John a gold ring.
* Using the reciprocal pronoun, "each other", this could be rewritten:
=> On their wedding day Mary and John gave each other gold rings.
If you need to refer to more than two people, say the students in a classroom, then we could use the reciprocal pronoun, "one another".
اذا اردنا الاشارة الى اكثر من شخصين مثل طلاب فى فصل نستخدم الضمير "one another".
For example:
The students in this classroom cooperate with one another.
The teachers gathered to congratulate one another on the year's conclusion.


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The Pronouns
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