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 Auxiliary verbs الافعال المساعدة

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مُساهمةموضوع: Auxiliary verbs الافعال المساعدة   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:44 am

study AUXILIARY VERBS study

Definition: Auxiliary verbs are used together with a main verb to give grammatical information and therefore add extra meaning to a sentence, which is not given by the main verb.
تستخدم مع الافعال الاساسية لاعطاء معلومة نحوية و بالتالى تضيف معنى للجملة لم يكن موجود بالفعل الاساسى
Be, Do and Have are auxiliary verbs, they are irregular verbs and can be used as main verbs.
هذه افعال مساعدة و يمكن ايضا ان تكون افعال اساسية

To be: Be is the most common verb in the English language.It is used a lot in its other forms. هو اكثر الافعال شيوعا فى اللغة الانجليزية





Present tense form

Past tense form
am/is/are
was/were

Uses:استخداماته

Am/Is/Are:
الاجابة بالنفى الاجابة بالموافقة السؤال





Question

Positive Statement

Negative Statement

Singular

Am I?
I am (I'm)I am not (I'm not)

Are you?
You are (You're)You are not (You're not/You aren't)

Is he/she/it?
He/she/it is (He's/She's/It's)He/she/it is not (He/she/it isn't// He/she/it's not)

Plural

Are we?
We are (We're)We are not (We aren't/We're not)

Are you?
You are (You're)You are not (You aren't/You're not)

Are they?
They are (They're)They are not (They aren't/They're not)

Examples:




Am/Are Is
Question - ?"Am I disturbing you?""Is this your coat"
Positive Answer - Yes"Yes you are.""Yes it is"
Negative Answer - No"No you're not.""No it isn't"
Note: The auxiliary verb 'be' can be followed either by the -ed form or by the -ing form.
يمكن له ان يلحق بـ ed او ing

To do: is often used in questions. يستخدم غالبا لصيغ السؤال

Uses:

Do / Does





Question

Positive Statement (spoken)

Negative Statement (spoken)

Singular
Do I?I doI do not (I don't)
Do you?You doYou do not (You don't)
Does he/she/it?He/she/it doesHe/she/it does not (He/she/it doesn't)

Plural
Do we?We doWe do not (We don't)
Do you?You doYou do not (You don't)
Do they?They doThey do not (They don't)

Examples:





Do

Does

Question - ?
"Do you always take the bus to work?""Does she ever do her homework on time?"

Positive Answer - Yes
"Yes I do.""Yes she does."

Negative Answer - No
"No I don't.""No she doesn't."

Note: The auxiliary verb 'do' is always followed by the base form (infinitive). دائما يلحقه الفعل فى المصدر


To have: is used in a variety of ways. يستخدم فى عدة احوال

Uses:

Have/Has





Question

Positive Statement (spoken)

Negative Statement (spoken)

Singular
Have I?I have (I've)I have not (I haven't/I've not)
Have you?You have (You've)You have not (You haven't/You've not)
Has he/she/it?He/she/it has (He/she/it 's)He/she/it has not (He/she/it hasn't)

Plural
Have we?We have (We've)We have not (We haven't/We've not)
Have you?You have (You've)You have not (You haven't/You've not)
Have they?They have (They've)They have not (They haven't/They've not)

Have is often used to indicate possession (I have) or (I have got). للاشارة الى الحيازية او الامتلاك

Examples:





Have

Have got

Question - ?
"Do you have a car?" or "Have you a car?""Have you got a car?"

Positive Answer - Yes
"Yes I have a car.""Yes I've got a car."

Negative Answer - No
"No I don't have a car.""No I haven't got a car."

Have is also used to indicate necessity (I have to) or (I have got to). للاشارة الى الضرورية





Have to

Have got to

Question - ?
"Do you have to leave early?""Have you got to leave early?"

Positive Answer - Yes
"Yes I have to." or "Yes I do""Yes I've got to."

Negative Answer - No
"No I don't have to.""No I haven't got to."

Have is used to show an action. لاظهار عمل ما




Question - ?"Have you washed your face?"

Positive Answer - Yes
" Yes I have."

Negative Answer - No
" No I haven't."

Note: When showing an action 'have' is always followed by the past participle form.
لاظهار عمل ما دائما تلحق have صيغة اسم المفعول
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: Auxiliary verbs الافعال المساعدة   الأحد أكتوبر 12, 2008 8:45 am

MODAL


Definition:


modals only exist in their helping form;
they cannot act alone as the principle verb in a sentence.
Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, obligation and necessity.
تظهر فقط فى شكلها المساعد
لا يمكنها ان تكون فعل مستقل بذاته فى الجملة
توضح افكار مثل الاحتمالية, النية, الالتزام و الضرورة


For example:


You can have a sweet if you like.
Jhon will be a footballer some day.
The Modal verbs are: Can, Could, may, might, must, shall, should, ought to, will, would.





Modal
Example
Uses

Can
They can control their own budgets.
We can’t fix it.
Can I smoke here?
Can you help me?
Ability / Possibility
Inability / Impossibility
Asking for permission
Request

Could
Could I borrow your dictionary?
Could you say it again more slowly?
We could try to fix it ourselves.
I think we could have another Gulf War.
He gave up his old job so he could work for us.
Asking for permission.
Request
Suggestion
Future possibility
Ability in the past

May
May I have another cup of coffee?
China may become a major economic power.
Asking for permission
Future possibility

Might
They might give us a 10% discount.Future possibility

Must
We must say good-bye now.
They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.
Necessity / Obligation
Prohibition

Ought to
We ought to employ a professional writer.Saying what’s right or correct

Shall
Shall I help you with your luggage?
Shall we say 2.30 then?
Shall I do that or will you?
Offer
Suggestion
Asking what to do

Should
We should sort out this problem at once.
I think we should check everything again.
Profits should increase next year.
Saying what’s right or correct
Recommending action
Uncertain prediction

Will
I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk.
I'll do that for you if you like.
I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday.
Profits will increase next year.
Instant decisions
Offer
Promise
Certain prediction

Would
Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?
Would you pass the salt please?
Would you mind waiting a moment?
"Would three o`clock suit you?" - "That’d be fine."
Would you like to play golf this Friday?
"Would you prefer tea or coffee?" - "I’d like tea please."
Asking for permission
Request
Request
Making arrangements
Invitation
Preferences

Sleep THE END Sleep
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
معاينة صفحة البيانات الشخصي للعضو
 
Auxiliary verbs الافعال المساعدة
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